All were equal before the law, and all had to come into the world possessing "rights" that had to be mutually respected on threat of banishment. The southern clergy helped foster a new civil religion in the former Confederacy, a myth that has been called the Lost Cause. Author Colin Woodard, in his fascinating book American Nations, presents a remarkably different and compelling viewpoint: that America as we know it is actually comprised of eleven different nations, each having its own unique historical, cultural and political features and views. In the 50s and 60s both the Dixie block and the Northern alliance had social revolutions. Minor revolutionaries started in December 1686 in Topsfield, Massachusetts. They call themselves the Regulators. Less than 40% survived the first winter. Part Four: Culture Wars Regional cultures can help explain president-elect Donald Trump's victory in November. However their efforts to preserve their separate cultures had produced two unexpected side effects: Chapter 13: Nations in the North     There was a lot of both support and opposition to the American Revolution in Canadian territory and there were two regiments who fought on the American side during the entire war. Earlier he refers to the first immigrants to Georgia being submerged in the Barbados based culture of the Deep South and in this chapter he refers to the possible takeover of the entire region of El Norte by the norteño culture which currently extends both north and south of the US-Mexico border. Mexico was no match for the American Army and it was conquered very rapidly. Midlanders tended to resist war preparations because so many of them had emigrated from Germany. Early Pennsylvania was an economic success, but it's Quaker-run government was a complete disaster. The National Army has been called out to suppress the drug cartels but it doesn't seem to be winning. It was not peaceful and many African Americans and their white supporters were beaten up, put in prison, tortured and killed. Between Lincoln's election and inauguration, only South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas seceded. The Deep South, Tidewater, and much of Greater Appalachia were occupied by a Yankee-dominated army. “Colin Woodard explains away partisanship in American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America, which makes the provocative claim that our culture wars are inevitable. It rarely challenges its corporate masters. Whites came to believe that God had allowed the Confederacy to be bathed in blood and its enemies ruling over it in order to test and sanctify His favored people. Many of our Founding Fathers agreed. However in Maryland, the Catholic Calvert family refused to proclaim its allegiance to the new sovereign. Yankeedom, Midlands, New Netherland, and Left Coast generally supporting social change, Deep South, Tidewater, and Greater Appalachia defending the traditional order. This was unsuccessful and led to over 100 years of religious wars, strong Protestant powers, and a Spain that was weak, deeply indebted, with the decaying Empire. The aristocratic gentleman who controlled the Tidewater were not nearly so unified and saw no need to gauge public opinion. Canada appears to be quite stable at present at least in part because the Canadian nations realize that they cannot survive nearly as well by themselves as they can and a working federation. All of these are still going on. Few immigrants entered the region for a century after 1640 but their population doubled every generation. As often as not, Appalachia was fighting a struggle of liberation against the Midlands, Tidewater, and the Deep South instead of against Britain. Tolerance of unusual social experiments and countercultural movements: Greenwich Village, cultural revolutionaries, gay rights, left-wing intellectualism, antiwar movement. Flags of the American Nations – Here I discuss each of Colin Woodard’s American Nations, talking about the characteristics of each as well as a bit about each nation’s origins. Chapter 22: Founding the Far West     The Far West isn't good for much, or put it another way, it takes a whole lot of the Far West to be good for anything, and it probably isn't good for more than once. Many Presbyterians also supported this line. A few hundred pilgrims settled Cape Cod in 1620 but in the 1630s, 25,000 Puritans traveled to Massachusetts Bay. Almost none of the settlers knew anything about farming and they had expected the Indians to work for them, they didn't. American Nations The United States, says author Colin Woodard, is not a country but an uneasy conglomeration of 11 rival nations. Liberty was something that was granted and was thus a privilege, not a right. American Nations Themes The Melting Pot Is a Falsehood While the United States is often described as a melting pot, Woodard writes that this idea is false, as is the idea that we have always been a unified country that has only recently been deeply divided. The threat to morality that all of these savage brutes brought to California inspired many Yankees to come west to bring education, culture, and their churches to the West. Then in 1617 West Indian strains of tobacco were found to grow and this changed a corporate military base to a booming export oriented plantation society almost overnight. If something major would happen in the US would the Mexican states south and west of the Rio Grande opt to join the US or perhaps join with the El Norte areas of the US and form their own nation-state? Chapter 7: Founding the Deep South     The founders of the Deep South arrived in what is now Charleston in 1670 in 1671. Throughout the colonial period, they regarded one another as competitors—and occasionally as enemies. Their individual settlements tended to be homogeneous but the next town may well be very different. In the South African Americans rose up and demanded their rights, white southerners rose up to defend their power. a popular movement demanding "democracy" which many of the national leaders found alarming. Above all we should understand that they were not perfect, they were people and they had human virtues and failings. It ended in 1848 with the US taking title to the property north of the current border (the Gadsden purchase came in 1853). 1878 to 2010 Their greatest challenge has typically been keeping Greater Appalachia in their coalition. The four that did, Yankeedom, Tidewater, Greater Appalachia, and the Deep South had little in common and strongly distrusted one another, they were fighting separate wars of colonial liberation. Resistance in New England died out quickly but when George Washington retired, John Adams was elected in a very close race over Thomas Jefferson, the Electoral College vote was 71 to 68. I recognized all the major occurrences but never put them together. It was enormously profitable to those who control it and it would's read rapidly across the lowlands of South Carolina and the rest of the Deep South. "I love liberty; I hate equality.". “ American Nations by journalist-historian Colin Woodard is a superb book. On his father's death in 1670, William Penn was one of the most famous Quakers in England and very very rich. The Deep South Seceded and fought the Civil War to defend slavery. Southern Baptist and Methodist preachers broke with their northern counterparts to endorse slavery on the grounds that Africans were descendents of Ham, who was condemned in the Bible to be a "hewer of wood and drawer of water" for his white masters. William of Orange was crowned king in the bloodless coup called the "Glorious Revolution". Between 1685 and 1688 three rebellions erupted, the first two were put down by royal armies but the third was more successful and James II was driven into exile in France in December 1688. They abandon the colony but were met at the mouth of the river with a new contingent of 300 colonists and a new governor who forced them back. The slave Lords of the Deep South were afraid of any effort that might effect their profits. We have been deeply divided ever since the days of Jamestown and Plymouth. Chapter 25: Culture Clash     In the late 50's I was in High School, my parents were Republicans. The current chapter discusses the Northern Federation. Most of the rest of the Far West was settled by miners, railroaders and associated service industries, and farmers lured into the area by the railroads, mines and other heavy industry, and the federal government. Santa Anna seized power in 1833 and in 1835 Texans, led by Stephen Austin and Juan Seguín and with the support of many of the Mexicans living in the area, revolted against Santa Anna. Chapter 16: The Midlands Spread West     A short chapter describing the movement and settlement of those from the Midlands (Pennsylvania area). After the South Carolina attack on Fort Sumpter most saw this as a traitorous attack on the United States. As the Revolution became imminent the Borderlanders of Appalachia would play a decisive role. The Nazis had praised the Deep South's caste system and lynching as a solution to racial mixing but that didn't go over well in Dixie. The power of the Dixie federation was fairly low from the end of the Civil War to the 1960s when JFK and LBJ threw the power of the federal government against many of the abuses of Dixie. They didn't actually celebrate diversity but tolerated it, because they knew the alternative was much worse. This group in Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana put Lincoln in the White House on the basis of a shift from Democrats to Republicans. If you are a first time voter, this is ancient history, better learn it. They were generally trying to break down the traditional institutions and social taboos Dixie whites were fighting to protect. As tensions over slavery increased, Deep Southerners began asserting their racial superiority over Yankees as well. When slavery became illegal they developed a caste and sharecropper system. Labor and manufacturing also generally split along these same lines. It was tried again but the leader, William Walker, was arrested by a US Navy officer. Many from the Deep South and Appalachia had already settled in the area and by 1825 immigration was opened up a great deal of land was dispersed, almost for free. Cultivating tobacco was very labor-intensive and the company leaders recruited indentured servants from England. The Québec liberals took over from the Anglo-Canadian and Catholic hierarchy and remade the province. Those farther south were more prone to see the southern planters as their greatest enemy and were ready to support the British to settle old scores with the planters. Chapter 3: Founding Tidewater     A few years after the French, the English landed at Jamestown. Yankees hated slavery and did everything they could to stop it. They were also not interested in having the white underclasses acquire any power. However by the middle of the 1700s England became much more powerful and begin to take more interest in these upstarts. The author spends several pages documenting a number of Southern leaders who said as much. When Fort Sumpter ran low on supplies, Lincoln notified South Carolina and only sent food, no weapons or ammunition. Chapter 28: The Struggle for Power II: The Red and the Purple     The Dixie block has not been particularly stable. Woodard raises this to six, points out that they did not occur sequentially and the two involved invasions by one American nation into another. Perhaps a list would make it clearer. The local staff of the Hudson's Bay Company were mostly from New France and their main rivals were shipborne fur traders from New England. Those from Greater Appalachia spread directly west in a broad band across the center of the nation and a little south into northern and central Texas. American Character, Colin Woodard traces these two key strands in American politics through the four centuries of the nation’s existence, from the first colonies through the Gilded Age, Great Depression and the present day, and he explores how different regions of the country have successfully or disastrously The commissioners dropped their demands and went home and talk of secession receded. Generally the Northern Federation has sided with taxation, large-scale public institutions, cultural diversity, freedom of conscience and expression, and social liberalism. The first whites who stayed in the northern areas were mostly fur traders. The slaveholding states of the Deep South became the regional power. The presumed son of the French king also wanted a monarchical, feudal society but instead of conquering and enslaving the Indians (as the Spanish had) or driving them away (as the English would), he wanted to convert them to Christianity and other aspects of French civilization and he thought that cross-cultural marriage between the two peoples was not only tolerable but desirable. Although New Netherland often sides with Yankeedom and the Left Coast it has sided with the Dixie coalition at times. The Regulators remained in power until 1771 when an army of 2000 Regulators was defeated by Tidewater militia. Private Protestants emphasized individual responsibility for one's lot in life; Public Protestants tried to harness government to improve society and the quality of life. Most did not stay close to the city but headed straight to the backcountry. Tidewater, which was the leader in the early days of America, has always been less committed to apartheid and authoritarianism than the Deep South, has slowly been turning towards Midland attitudes. While a Dixie block was coalescing around individual salvation and defense of traditional social values, a Northern alliance was forming around very different religious priorities. An overwhelming number of immigrants may completely submerge an existing nation. He does offer one "out". The final 2½ pages ask the question, what if the Dixie block never existed or if the Confederacy had quietly and peacefully seceded in 1861. The third reason why the Spanish colonies did not thrive was that many of the settlements were governed by priests who are more concerned with religious propriety than they were with commerce and expansion. "I am an aristocrat," Virginian John Randolph would explain decades after the American Revolution. A full-scale cultural war was quietly brewing and it would explode in the 1960s. The railroads convinced the federal government to heavily subsidize their track laying and then very quickly the railroads and associated industries (mining, timber, and to a lesser extent farming) bought sufficient politicians to control much of the governments of the area. For early settlers there were only two ways that worked. Skip to content. I also have a serious problem with these chapters: color. Manifest Destiny: God wished Americans to rule the continent from sea to sea. At present it appears that the Mexican federation is in the worst shape. Part Three: Wars for the West Chapter 1: Founding El Norte     In 1493 Pope Alexander VI gave Spain almost all of the entire Western Hemisphere, the only thing that was askes of Spain was that all of the hemispheres inhabitants must be converted to Catholicism and to "train them in good morals." They were skilled craftsmen, lawyers, doctors, and human servants – no indentured servants. The Left Coast, El Norte, and The Far West were happy to support the new war industries and military bases in their regions. He describes the dominant cultural traits in each of the “nations… Probably the most difference is the First Nation which has recently gained control of most of northern Canada. Feelings escalated until in December 1814 a meeting was held in Hartford, where most people were prepared to secede. The book has 3 pages of acknowledgments and suggested reading, 27 pages of notes by chapter and a 17 page index. Southern Baptists, Methodists, and Episcopalians and others became more private, believing that the world was inherently corrupt and sinful, particularly after the Civil War. Chapter 20: Founding the Left Coast     Most of the Left Coast's early colonists were Yankees who arrived by sea in hopes of founding a second New England on the Pacific. The more than 1/2 million deaths the feud had a bad start but the occupation made it worse in the Deep South and Tidewater. They were hostile to landed aristocracy, noble privilege, the Anglican church, and the Royalist cause. Adams' presidency was very controversial because he tried to make over the nation by imposing the cultural values of New Englanders. However both Appalachia and the Deep South were rapidly expanding. Majority landed in and around Philadelphia. Washington, to the north, was not settled as soon because the ownership of the area was still unclear. The Deep South and Tidewater never found a war they didn't like, Appalachia tends to hang back until the war starts and then it supplies a lot of the soldiers. Found it is probably the wrong word, most were refugees from lowland Scotland, northern England, and the Scots-Irish North end of Ireland. But from the 1670s onward the gentry have an increasingly difficult time finding enough poor Englishmen willing to take on this role. Dixie has pushed for white Protestant superiority, social conformity, and suppression of dissent. In 1800 he lost the election to Jefferson. Americans have become divided on account of having strayed from the core principles on which their country was founded. During much of the time when the American colonies were being founded the British government was just as happy to get rid of troublemakers and pretty much ignored them when they got to the Americas. It's political class tends to revile the federal government for interfering in its affairs—a stance that often aligns it with the Deep South—while demanding it continue to receive federal largesse. They all knew that collaboration wasn't going to be easy and Georgia refused to send any delegates while the delegates from the Appalachian region were refused entry. Summary According to award-winning journalist and historian Colin Woodard, North America is made up of eleven distinct nations, each with its own unique historical roots. The others wanted to remain neutral and considered breaking off to form their own confederations. Although the Tidewater gentry were royalist they were worried that James would inpose Catholic rule. The pockets of Yankeedom, New France, and the Midlands within Canada have retained their culture to this day but they never felt compelled to revolt and the British maintained tight control with troops to backup their government and also had learned enough not to govern too oppressively. Since the legal states are the recognized political boundaries would the breakup be along state lines, would some of the states break up to more closely match the boundaries of the nations? That's more nations … The positions of those "swing" nations determine shifts in the balance … Most leaders in Tidewater and the Deep South were strong supporters. The pacifist Midlands were against slavery but were willing to allow the South to go its own way. By 1670 the platters had run out of land on their tiny island and they needed to expand, first to the other English islands and then to the subtropical lowlands of the east coast of North America. Prior to Fort Sumpter all of the New Netherlands (read New York City) congressmen consistently voted with the South. Perfect prep for The Cold War (1945–1963) quizzes and tests you might have in school. Tidewater's gentry embraced classical Republicanism, meaning a Republic model after those of ancient Greece and Rome. ’American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America’ by Colin Woodard (Viking) The original North American colonies were settled by people from distinct regions of the British Islands, and from France, the Netherlands, and Spain, each with their own religious, political, and ethnographic characteristics. More settlers arrived but three years later food ran short again and less than 30% survive the winter. Salvationists concentrated on saving the souls of the poor; Public Protestants concentrated on labor protections, minimum wage, and reducing poverty. They were stopped by the Cherokee nation in the Tennessee and surrounding area from the 1750s to 1829 when Andrew Jackson was elected and put the Federal government behind efforts to remove the Cherokees in the Trail of Tears. Final papers will be due Jan. 1, 2050 and grades will be posted by Jan 1, 2100, good luck. With the increasing value of cotton and sugar as cash crops the slave owners were able to buy much more property and more slaves. The American Nations Today. From the utopian "Yankeedom" to the conservative "Greater Appalachia" and liberal "Left Coast," looking at these cultures sheds an interesting light on They tried to invade Cuba and failed several times, Nicaragua was conquered for a few months in 1856 before cholera and an insurgency drove them back out. I knew nothing of politics or social movements. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Leaders on all sides knew that open hostilities would result in a war and none of them wanted that. dividing ourselves but our values and our principles can unite us. It was disbanded by its own Grand Wizard in 1869 when the southern white elite became concerned that it was encouraging the lower white orders to think and act on their own. Only when London began regarding its colonies as a single unit—and enacted policies threatening to nearly all—did these distinct societies briefly come together to win a revolution and create a joint government. El Norte and the Far West varied depending on the particular issue. Any effort to "restore" fundamental American values runs into an obstacle: Each of our founding cultures has its own set of cherished principles, and they often contradict one another. 1770 to 1815 Canada has had major fractures but they seem to have been overcome in large part by the actions of the First Nations. Penn's colonization effort was extremely well organized. Their emphasis turned more toward personal salvation instead of social gospel—an effort to transform the world in preparation for Christ's coming. In the US Native Americans are widely scattered and have no real center of power. The following list goes into more detail about how these stateless nations were founded, evolved, and ended up today and the following map illustrates the roughly county by county boundaries of these nations. Then news of the coronation of William arrived. In these two chapters blue means north and red means south. They formed a new ethnoracial group, the métis, which were as comfortable living in an aboriginal setting as in the European settlements. This prompted the English, Scots, and Dutch to form a lasting hatred of all things Spanish which became deeply ingrained in the cultures of Yankeedom, Appalachia, Tidewater, and the deep South. Since then the power of Dixie grew until the 1990s and it has been fairly constant since then. They did not come directly from your, they were the sons and grandsons of the founder of an older English colony: Barbados, the richest and most horrifying society in the English-speaking world. At the last minute the delegates pulled back and dispatched three commissioners to Washington to negotiate terms. Every town (congregation) would govern itself with no outside influence. Liberties were valuable because most people did not have them and were thought meaningless without the presence of a hierarchy. The battles that were started in the 1950s and '60s have continued through the 1990s and 2000s. No one was given large land grants but groups of settlers would be given a charter to found a town and they would elect a committee of peers to lay out the roads, church, schoolhouse, town green, and family lots. Several small groups attempted to set up their own nations and in 1775 one of these sent representative to the Continental Congress asking to be admitted as the 14th member. This is still with us today in the form of anti-Mexican racism. There were a few blacks but they were generally treated equally to the points. They were extremely democratic, 60% to 70% of males (lets not get carried away with this) could vote on all town business. Now Colin Woodard, a Maine-based author, offers "American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America." A timeline listing the important events during John F. Kennedy. Reconstruction was only the first of the large-scale social engineering efforts by the Northern Coalition, others were: The fundamentalist spent the 30s, 40s, and 50s organizing and building religious infrastructure and recruiting new members while membership in mainline Protestant churches declined.