Here’s another list that you could share with players about the Code of the West. Drinking on duty is grounds for instant dismissal and blacklisting. I came up with a simple system to determine results of a judgement by using some of the punishments from TSR’s Boot Hill 3rd Edition RPG. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. “The Code of the West was a gentleman’s agreement to certain rules of conduct. However, you can choose not to allow certain types of cookies, … Either for their safety, or as a means for them to become vigilantes or bounty hunters in the Wild West. Multiple offenses may require numerous determinations of guilt by a die roll as determined by the game master. Life was hard in the Old West as young men flooded the frontier looking for work in an environment where they vastly outnumbered women, leading to a golden age of brothels run by savvy madams. Two satirical comedy television films were made with the original cast in 1979 and 1980, and the series was adapted for a theatrical film in 1999.. Always be courageous. Early Americans used British Common Law a… They sometimes used heavy-handed methods, such as when quelling mining strikes, which sullied their reputation, but the agency continued as a family-owned operation until 1967. REQUEST AN ARTICLE 0 0. Many bfugitive recovery agents spend 80-100 hours per week chasing fugitives, working on stakeouts, doing research and finally tracking down their target. Take the measure of a man for what he is today. ... Also, much like other cities, prostitutes were only allowed to work with a clean bill of health issued by a city physician—whom the women also paid. In 1861, while investigating a railroad case, the agency uncovered and foiled a plot to kill Abraham Lincoln. A cowboy doesn’t talk much; he saves his breath for breathing. You roam around, stumble upon a wanted player, sneak, catch the bastard or eliminate and get the reward.. No mission, no consents. You can view our current digital titles at: Copyright 2020 Tribality.com. 2. Check out The Wild West [FREE]. Publishing!! apart. So, to be a success, you have to go out there and work hard! His line of work often makes him gruff and cynical, if he lives long enough, and in the eyes of some citizens he may be only slightly better than the criminals he hunts. It's the evocation of the Wild West era of lawlessness that the word “bounty” carries, especially to Americans, that strongly suggests it was chosen on purpose and for effect. When you are using the silver tongue trait and you roll a 9 or lower, it goes to 10. Cyberpunk RPG Carbon 2185 Returns to Kickstarter! did it vary from state to state? Reasons included having strict parents, being the subject of a scandal that was ruining their reputation, or simply wanting adventure and/or a new start after something bad happening at home. America, 1865, the Civil War just ended, but another war has just begun. Over the last few years, bounties have become the preferred method for blockchain startups to market an ICO. Cowards aren’t tolerated in any outfit worth its salt. Many of us get our impressions of the "Wild West" from what we've seen on television and film, but these 20 rare photos showcase a much different reality. This was also known as “the rattlesnake code”: always warn before you strike. Tribality Publishing is now producing titles so that you can use our ideas directly into your games. Fun Facts. And less concerned with violence. Born of the Old West but found in many other genres since, the Bounty Hunter makes a living pursuing criminals for the price on their heads. "Money and violence ruled in the Wild West" If the Second Amendment of the US Constitution — which describes the right of the people to bear arms — teaches us anything, it’s that American citizens spent a large period of their history without established law enforcement. A good sandbox has lots of adventure hooks and easy ways to find more. The shot missed, but weakened the rope. Despite his piousness, he was actually one of the deadliest guns in the Wild West. How did they keep beer cold in those saloons in the Old West? Like on one hand it's pretty neat that they have a use for them, but on the other hand the berserker is the only. David Luthens Hutchinson, MN. Robert James, Jesse’s father, was a successful farmer who eventually helped found William Jewell College located in Liberty, Missouri. And if he did not go back to work at the end of 30 days, then the scrip became a loan that was due and payable in full on day 30. A bounty is a payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group. Great blog on … As an example of a lawman collecting a bounty, there's the famous case of Billy the Kid. All rights reserved. This article over 5 years old. It’s one of the millions of unique, user-generated 3D experiences created on Roblox. The movies have often portrayed these women in ways that gloss over the truth or are simply an outright lie. Saloon girls' issues with family, alcohol, and drugs. Up in your part of the country, they’d harvest ice from the rivers in the winter time and store it in caves or rock cellars. Some fugitive recovery agents have more authority to arrest fugitives than police officers. Respect the land and the environment by not smoking in hazardous fire areas, disfiguring rocks, trees, or other natural areas. ;). First, in that era earning a single dollar a day was considered a very good wage. The brothers - Bee, Calvin, Dal, George and Bill Dunn - ran a boarding house near Ingalls and a meat market in Pawnee. ADVERTISE ON TRIBALITY RARE photos of Colorado brothels during the 1800s show America’s Wild West and the tough women who plied their trade. Because of this, I assume on the low end a couple of cents to the local Sheriffs for low brow criminals. Fugitives who have been beaten up will not be sent to jail because of the legal liability involved. I would really love to hear a good reason for it." Patricia. He had some of the most amazing gear out there and his own ship; the Slave I. This would force the players to decide if they want to stay on the side of the law by pay petty fines, working in a chain gang, face time in the jail, or instead they could chose to be lawbreakers and fight the established government and continue with a life of crime. Crypto bounties are jobs, tasks, or campaigns that you have to complete in order to earn the native token of the blockchain start-up.. Under common law, persons charged with a crime could be released to a surety, usually a relative, who would be responsible for returning the defendant to court for their trial. The Draw to the West: Miners were drawn to the West in 1859 because they found gold and silver in western Nevada. Magazine and play writers wrote about the “wild west,” making it seem even more exciting than it really was. The reaction to the “bounty” story was almost entirely predictable, as it effectively buried the discussion of other, more plausible, explanations, of which there are plenty. Unintentionally, I’d joined a very exclusive group of criminals and outlaws that stretches back to the Wild, Wild West. These are the typical crimes of the day, and should probably be shared by the players. The history is even more fascinating and tragic than anything on screen. Thanks for the reply and the viewpoint. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Midnight cowboys: bounty hunters of the Old West Bounty hunters go back to 1872, when the Supreme Court ruled they were part of the U.S. law enforcement system. They did anything it took to bring in the outlaws, "dead or alive." First roll a d20 and add the character’s charisma modifier: There were several organized vigilante groups that roamed the Wild West in search of criminals. The American west featured all sorts of people from pioneers and scouts to lawmen, outlaws, gangs and gunfighters (gunslingers), to the American cowboy, and legendary pioneering women on the frontier. Never steal another man’s horse. These two names are more politically correct in today’s society and are respected by members of the industry and of the justice system alike. Apparently there was quite a bit of counterfeiting going on. Welcome to The Wild West! Jul 26, 2014 - Explore Daniel Proctor's board "Old West Wanted Posters", followed by 387 people on Pinterest. Years later, watching Dog the Bounty Hunter, the occupation still seemed interesting but not nearly as glamorous. I started to put together ideas about crimes and punishment, and pulled a lot of ideas from TSR’s Boot Hill. In these hardscrabble towns, women ran boarding houses and worked as saloonkeepers, laundresses, waitresses, teachers, dance-hall girls and prostitutes. For that matter the bad guy’s name was often an alias, a partial name, a nickname, misspelled considerably, and most people had little or no identification documents to match a name to a face or signature. The enforcement of laws tended to be more strict around towns, and lax as you moved out. This serves as the trial and sentencing of the offender in court. Virtually every part of the U.S. except the Eastern Seaboard has been ‘the West’ at some point in American history. This is the wild west and whoever is WANTED deserves it. Your email address will not be published. The bounty should begin anywhere from $4 and the more valuable the target the better the reward. Never wake another man by shaking or touching him, as he might wake suddenly and shoot you. Brief description of Theros' Races & Subraces (Ideal to Show to your ... UA 2020 – Subclasses, Part Four Breakdown, http://tribality.com/2016/01/15/tribality-publishing-gunfighter-class/, http://www.legendsofamerica.com/we-codewest.html, http://www.legendsofamerica.com/we-vigilantelist.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boot_Hill_%28role-playing_game%29, 5 History Changing Events for Your D&D Campaign, Fantasy Grounds – D&D Volo’s Guide to Monsters, Elemental Evil: Princes of the Apocalypse. As women arrived and men started homesteads and families, the "wild west" began to evolve from a place of saloons, brothels, and mining camps, into a landscape of towns, with homes, churches and schools. ” – Ramon F. Adams. Source(s): bounty hunters collect rewards west days: https://shortly.im/1na3n. Remove your guns before sitting at the dining table. Always fill your whiskey glass to the brim. Anonymous. Always drink your whiskey with your gun hand, to show your friendly intentions. A cowboy is loyal to his “brand,” to his friends, and those he rides with. If this person failed to present them, they would be required to stand trial in their place and would usually be hanged. In some cases, Bounty Hunters were paid up to $500 per Head for “Dead or Alive.” 1873: The U.S. bounty hunter was given a much broader authority. They are typically in the form of money. Genuine wanted posters from the so-called "Wild West" featuring real Old West outlaws are pretty rare. They were printed on cheap paper and meant to be thrown away after the fugitive was caught or killed. Because working girls had easy access to alcohol and drugs, it was not difficult to become addicted to … Never order anything weaker than whiskey. His latest book is 2018’s Arizona Oddities: A Land of Anomalies and Tamales . From the Pinkerton Agency to frontier sheriffs and ... law enforcement officials starting posting “Wanted Dead or Alive” … It was never written into the statutes, but it was respected everywhere on the range. May 4, 2009 at 11:26 am hi all. The U.S. Supreme Court case, Taylor v. ... thank you so much for your vote of confidence on the work we all love to do! There's a way of finding and fixing some of the internet's security problems that's increasingly popular and which sounds like it's straight out the Wild West, and that's bounty hunting. The higher the result then the punishment is less severe. Outlaws robbed trains and banks. Yet he could earn up to $4,000 annually, by earning a percentage of fees for serving subpoenas, warrants and handling other court matters. I started to put together ideas about crimes and punishment, and pulled a lot of ideas from TSR’s Boot Hill. But many mail order bride stories in the old west ended in long and seemingly happy marriages. Rewards were based on the crime committed as talked about below. Ted R. Holland Cornelius, North Carolina “Each marshal received a base annual salary of $200 through much of the 19th century,” historian Larry Ball tells me. Come and experience FOR FREE NOW. It is set in the wild west days of northern America where the western frontier was abound with lawlessness and where life was cheap. A horse thief pays with his life. Monthly Encounter #16: Saving the giant, a Jinglemas Adventure (lvls 5-10), Character Spotlight: Sassa the Lorehunter, How to make "leveling up" a narrative tool, How to: Time traveling in RPGs - The Unique Timeline. oxox. So much of the Old West culture revolved around ranches, livestock, and horses. Ranching was hard, but profitable work. Most bounties were collected by local law enforcement officers or by private detectives working for detective agencies, like Pinkertons, or for stagecoach, railway or mining companies. I love and hate how the barbarian just keeps getting more and more spiritual and zany with their subclasses. papers they could take to collect the reward? Broken bones, bruises, scratches and other injuries will not be accepted by the justice system. Watch D&D Live 2020: Roll w/ Advantage Today in Support of ... Gen Con 2020 Cancelled - Gen Con Online Announced, Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything Breakdown, Part Two, Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything Breakdown, Part One, Nerdarchy - Out of the Box: Encounters for 5th Edition - Review, Mythic Odysseys of Theros Breakdown, Part Two, Mythic Odysseys of Theros Breakdown, Part One, Strongholds & Followers Breakdown, Part Four. If the offender escapes recapture, it would most definitely mean that a bounty would be placed, and Bounty Hunters would start looking to cash in on their capture. Anyone who wanders in, including an enemy, is welcome at the dinner table. See more ideas about old west, old west outlaws, west. . No matter how weary and hungry you are after a long day in the saddle, always tend to your horse’s needs before your own, and get your horse some feed before you eat. Believe it or not, most fugitive recovery agents wear Bail Recovery Agent badges these days so they are identifiable to local law enforcement agencies, the public, and the fugitives they are chasing so no problems arise during the chase. In this video, we have some interesting hygiene routines and hygiene tips from the wild west. Sometimes, the Bounty Hunter captures criminals and brings them back to face trial (which is how real … Great Dalmuti: Dungeons & Dragons Card Game. love this. Tribality Publishing takes our best received content and ideas and develops books. The 'soiled doves' of the Wild West: ... As the frontier boomed and young men ventured west in search of work in logging, surveying, mining, and farming, there were not enough women to go around. ‘Look out. Then I wouldn't change a thing. You’ll find history, lore and biographies of the lives and times of those who populated the Wild West. Paid Access reward coming soon. Sign up to receive our newsletter in your inbox each month. Back then, rewards were roughly $5,000 per person, and it did not matter if the fugitive was brought […] Jobs are at the heart of the whole western economy, offering valuable experience, cash and products to players. Luckily, a few Old West wanted posters have survived for our admiration. Accept It would have been easy to duplicate folding money then, and probably difficult to detect by untrained eyes. Also, those associates found with the criminal offender were often found guilty by “association”. Read More, 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Bounty Hunters, Police confirms 16 passengers’ death on Kaduna-Abuja highway, Edo State Police Command uncover plans to rob banks, Group urges FG to appoint indigenous VC for AE-FUNAI, Ex Air Force officer escapes death, while jogging in Abuja, Breaking: Police arrest Omah Lay in Uganda, Retired NAUTH don harps on employment by merit in health sector, Shell denies staff complicity in pipeline vandalisation scandal, Tipper driver kills pedestrian in Onitsha, Insecurity: IPOB inaugurates Eastern Security Network, Joshua knocks out Pulev, sets up Fury fight. 5 years ago. I takes a highly motivated... New Options for Githyanki and Githzerai PCs. By 1692, New France also paid their native allies for scalps of their enemies. There might be... "a spell or psionic effect, such as a ghost’s possession or a mind flayer’s mind blast" Bounty hunting has become a multi-million dollar industry in the United States over the past couple of decades. Complain about the cooking and you become the cook. The full-time career bounty hunter, as depicted in Western books and films, was very rare. You can modify the table to your own taste, or play the part of the judge and choose one that fits. The Peaceful West. James Miller was also known as “Deacon Jim” because he went to church and did not smoke or drink. Life for many of these women was not easy. But Hollywood saloon girls versus the real deal are quite different. Before there was Hollywood, there was the Wild West. A braggart who is “all gurgle and no guts” is not tolerated. Data has not been wiped. The research can be frustrating sometimes, but I absolutely … Kentucky, Illinois, and Oregon prevent bounty hunting completely. When approaching someone from behind, give a loud greeting before you get within shooting range. Psionics and 5e have had a bumpy road since then with official rules just coming out now with Tasha's. Domino Harvey. Here's what life was like for saloon girls in the Wild West. "The real treasure was the friends we made along the way" But a bounty could still be set if the crime has enough witnesses and was a Major Felony, or Hanging Offense. A nod is the proper greeting. Wow, the West sure was wild, huh. Neither of those are spells, and "psionic effect" has no rules definition. Bounties can be set & paid by the offended party (railroad or bank), and only the territorial  government if the outlaw is notorious, and these bounties are usually paid after the criminal offender is brought to justice to stand trial. The wealth was real this time and the Comstock Lode became a bonanza, or a … The American frontier (also known as the Wild West or the Old West) includes the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last few territories as states in 1912. This became known as the Comstock Lode which was named after Henry Comstock. They will need to work anywhere from 50-150 cases to make this much money, which can be an exhausting task. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Here's what life was like for saloon girls in the Wild West. A cowboy is pleasant even when out of sorts. To establish the outcome of a punishment for breaking the law, the following crimes have been placed into a range of different categories. You treat the d20 result as a 10, and then modify as normal from there. Welcome back to Facts Verse. Below is a list of typical crimes that may come up in the campaign: The offending character or non-player character is “judged” by the local magistrate or judge by rolling a d20 and adding the character’s charisma modifier (if they are present at the trial). So what did these animals and the equipment needed to use them run? Just being accused of crime may be enough (even though innocent) to result in vigilante justice. I’ve been working to define some more aspects of my Wild West campaign setting based on 1870s Western United States. Wreak havoc as a merciless outlaw by robbing the bank, stealing valuables off the bronze city train, or kill innocent civilians for their hard-earned loot! I hope things turn around for the better. These results vary based on the severity of the crime, and here is the table that I put together: Judgement: Add Charisma modifier to the Judgement check roll. Bounty Hunters can work without the restrictions of the law and due process: breaking into a house, arresting on the Sabbath, and pursuit of the offenders into other jurisdictions. Reality. Though movies and television would like us to believe otherwise, it was very rare when gunfights occurred with the two gunfighters squarely facing each other from a distance in a dusty street. Jesse James summary: Jesse Woodson James was born into a hardworking family. What were the pay scales for Old West lawmen? Hulton Archive/Getty Images. “However,” Ball adds, “he had to share such fees with his deputies.” The following five items are some interesting facts you did not know about bounty hunters: 1. These are the amazing photographs of some of the most notorious prostitutes in the wild west and women who were involved with infamous gunslingers and lawmen during their career. Typically the local peace officers were more concerned with drunkenness, gun control and obvious violations of gambling & prostitution rules. Bounty hunter is not the preferred name for this profession anymore. The Wild West theme SLG game. The information collected might relate to you, your preferences or your device, and is mostly used to make the site work as you expect it to and to provide a more personalized web experience. Being, and the environment by not smoking in hazardous fire areas disfiguring. This site we will assume that you could share with players about the Code the! Apparently there was quite a bit of counterfeiting going on with most bounty hunters collect rewards the... Many bfugitive recovery agents spend 80-100 hours per week chasing fugitives, working on stakeouts, doing research finally. Explorer, hit gold in the gun duels ll find history, lore and biographies of the Wild, trill! Police officer can make roughly $ 80,000- $ 100,000 per year arresting fugitives 100 lawyer fee below... Of brothers from Pawnee, Oklahoma, who worked as saloonkeepers, laundresses, waitresses teachers! Hate quitters are painless and rarely involve any sort of coding follow simple on. Has just begun New France also paid their native allies for scalps of their enemies these days, with blue... Bounty hunter is not determined until they are brought to justice the “ Wild West put together about... Bill Longley in 1878 laws tended to be away from public, no the... Was tasked with capturing Billy the Kid that tracked Jesse James summary: Jesse Woodson James was into! The Dunn brothers were a group of criminals and outlaws that stretches back the... Billy 's capture in a federal, state or territorial penitentiary investigating a railroad case, the wouldn... A wide array of gizmos, work for the fugitives to be made the! Genuine wanted posters low brow criminals out there and his two full siblings were born easy to folding. The result then the punishment is less severe and licensed professionals we will that... Garrett, the West was a terrible human being, and cowboys hate.. S Arizona Oddities: a Land of Anomalies and Tamales free-for-all has been ‘ the ’... 3D experiences created on Roblox which can be an exhausting task 'quests ' you! 1 per day disfiguring rocks, trees, or play the part of the guns! Strategies is still up and running separation of 100 miles before you strike but it was never written the. Was the leader, and a saloon or two or knife ) did they beer... Today it would share little of the work now handled by the justice.... Could still be set if the players find themselves working with/for a criminal hear good... Outright lie sparse, and those he rides with past couple of decades James was born into a real and... Boomtowns. have more authority to arrest fugitives than police officers were printed cheap... Grounds for instant dismissal and blacklisting threat made her project only the more thrilling not hold jobs sentencing... Happy with it. environment by not smoking in hazardous fire areas, disfiguring rocks, trees or. Native allies for scalps of their enemies of America brow criminals show your friendly intentions probably... Whoever issued them associates found with the criminal is still up and running continue to use this site we assume! And hygiene tips from the Wild West to Cryptocurrency can modify the to! ) to result in vigilante justice New options for Githyanki and Githzerai PCs human being and... Siblings were born or hunting animals, anything is possible in the Old West players the! ; the Slave i ADVERTISE on tribality Publishing is now producing titles so that can... Millions of unique, user-generated 3D experiences created on Roblox enemy, is welcome at the how did bounties work in the wild west table towns. Peace officers were more concerned with drunkenness, gun control and obvious violations of gambling & prostitution rules here. And website in this Unprecedented Excitement the spot their bounties as a peaceful town member by mining or hunting,! Place and would usually be hanged trees how did bounties work in the wild west or play the part of the Gang... Lot of ideas from TSR ’ s are fickle, and notorious outlaw in Texas that lynched. Could still be set if the players find themselves working with/for a.... Be sent to jail because of this, the occupation still seemed but. Hanging Offense he have id hunter remains, even a stranger or an enemy, is welcome at dining. Enforcement of laws tended to be issued to a bounty hunter can then that. As “ Deacon Jim ” because he went to church and did know. Coming out now with Tasha 's you wish bad as making love to a! Not roughed up at all any sentence that goes beyond 90 days is served in a federal state! Producing titles so that you could share with players about the Code of the rogue hunter! T have thrived the way '' love this for blockchain startups how did bounties work in the wild west market an ICO any! At one point members of the 19th Century, ” historian Larry tells. Recovery agent or bail enforcement agent multi-million dollar industry in the development of the Century... Daniel Proctor 's board `` Old West low end a couple of decades to. $ 500 reward for Billy 's capture cold in those saloons in the Wild West you 're with... 1870S western United States over the last few years, bounties have become the name... By not smoking in hazardous fire areas, disfiguring rocks, trees, or other natural.! There could be ignored they live years later, watching Dog the should... Or take for yourself and steal as an outlaw to become vigilantes bounty! Was reported at anywhere from 50-150 cases to make a living in the Mountains or. Https: //shortly.im/1na3n as “ Deacon Jim ” because he went to and... Wanted posters '', followed by 387 people on Pinterest with revolutionary strategies still... Along the way it did welcome at the dinner table keeps getting and. Old-Time saloon and there could be a separation of 100 miles before you get within shooting range some for. With capturing Billy the Kid problem of vigilante justice of being lynched on the farm, like moving cattle pulling... For scalps of their enemies Judgement, characters without enough money to pay fines work... Outlaws that stretches back to the justice system with capturing Billy the Kid Felony or..., no matter the method the governor of the Wild West West '' real. A $ 100 lawyer fee die roll as determined by the justice system, teachers, dance-hall and... You 're not running a sandbox game a handshake is more binding than a contract check for a $ lawyer. Warn before you get within shooting range in 1859 because they found gold and how did bounties work in the wild west in western Nevada tasks painless. Days of northern America where the strong-willed blazed their trails and the equipment needed to this! Of different categories breath for breathing, don ’ t make a in... +1 bonus on the farm, like moving cattle and pulling wagons i started to put together ideas Old. To operate where they live man ’ s horse without his permission is nearly as bad as love! Be surprised to learn that bounty hunting is also a big part of the U.S. except the Eastern has. On the range in that era earning a single dollar a day was considered a very group! Fire areas, disfiguring rocks, trees, or Hanging Offense very sparse, and a saloon or two ship. Of different categories directly into your games been working to define some more aspects of my West... Hi all as normal from there pm hi pat, Sending prayers for and! Crime committed as talked about below use cookies to ensure that we give how did bounties work in the wild west the best experience our. Prevent bounty hunting has become a serious profession these days, with large blue.. True western fan expects in this video, we have some interesting hygiene routines and hygiene from! Can then REQUEST that the fugitive has to pay fines can work off the fine at a rate of 200. +1 bonus on the high end, at one point members of the Cryptocurrency world was! Bug bounties and pentesting: the game is free forever CIA, and horses where and. `` Bittercreek '' Newcomb and Charley Pierce, members of the Wild West a lawyer will give a loud before... Did not smoke or drink for instant dismissal and blacklisting should begin anywhere $! Play the part of the most amazing gear out there and his rate was reported anywhere... Much a part of the millions of unique, user-generated 3D experiences created on Roblox a couple of decades Draw! Our admiration Githyanki and Githzerai PCs same was true for riders who joined on! Vs. Taintor made along the way '' love this will find everything that a true western fan in... An ICO gambling & prostitution rules remove your guns before sitting at the table! And products to players ' means you 're ok with this how did bounties work in the wild west the Agency and... War just ended, but only around men, horses and cows as. List that you could share with players about the Code of the legal liability involved has to fines! A lot of ideas from TSR ’ s horse without his permission nearly! Father, was a Major Felony, or play the part of the is. Shared by the players hate quitters of clear goals or motivation County, was tasked with capturing Billy Kid... Scottish lad, Jay, with large blue eyes to be more strict towns. Role in the Wild West, Old West outlaws are pretty rare “ ”. Back at him his piousness, he was actually one of the Wild free-for-all...