John T VanDeVoort, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Health-System PharmacistsDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Most stingray injuries can be treated with hot water immersion, wound debridement, and prophylactic antibiotics, while some may require more extensive treatment and surgical intervention at a tertiary care center. Patients should make their way back to the safety of shore by shuffling their feet (so they won't be stung again). 15. People can take steps to prevent stepping on a stingray when swimming in water where stingrays may be found. sources in all stingray wound patients; some sources suggest prophylactic antibiotics only with immunocompromised pa­ tients or with injuries to high-riskareas such as hands and feet [3,7,15,31,32]. [Medline]. It needs to soak for about 2 hours. Auerbach PS. 2003 Aug. 45(4):214-6. Germain M, Smith KJ, Skelton H. The cutaneous cellular infiltrate to stingray envenomization contains increased TIA+ cells. Risk for infection is compounded by any saltwater-resistant bacteria that may be on the stingray barb as well. Addressing Lower Extremity Ischemia Issues After The Use Of Vasopressors. The tail of the stingray contains a barbed stinger attached to a venom gland and contained within an integumentary sheath. Procedures, encoded search term (Stingray Envenomation) and Stingray Envenomation, Botulinum Toxin Injections in Plastic Surgery, Pathophysiology and Etiology of Lead Toxicity, EMA Panel Recommends DPD Testing Prior to Fluorouracil Treatment, CDC Panel Recommends Pfizer's COVID-19 Vaccine for People 16 and Over, Model May Predict Post-treatment Hodgkin Lymphoma Outcomes, Famous Patients: From Goethe to Beethoven, Marley to Bogart, Don't Use N95 Masks for More Than 2 Days, Research Suggests, Lower Back Pain: NSAID + Muscle Relaxant No Better Than NSAID + Placebo, A 30-Year-Old Man With Hallucinations After a House Party, Add Delirium to Checklist of COVID-19 Symptoms in Seniors. Treating Stingray Envenomation And Injury In The Lower Extremity, http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1531446,00.html, Recommending Basketball Shoes: Educating Athletes On Keys To Appropriate Selection, Current Insights On The Diagnostic Algorithm For Charcot Neuroarthropathy, Incorporating Remote Patient Monitoring Into Your Practice: Essential Considerations. The spines are covered with a thin integumentary layer that concentrates venom secreted by glands on their inferior surface.1 Stingrays are not aggressive toward humans. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1997. 69(4):885-90. In addition, the serrated spines of the stingray’s tail can cause lacerations and/or puncture wounds which may result in bleeding. By binding to one or more of the penicillin binding proteins, cefixime arrests bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibits bacterial growth. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases. The evaluation, management, and prevention of stingray injuries in travelers. 2004;69(4):885-890. It covers Vibrio species well, although coverage is not as good for Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Staphylococci and streptococci remain the most common infecting agents and must not be ignored. Wilderness Environ Med. Fatal and non-fatal stingray envenomation. Heat in theory rapidly denatures the venom protein, providing significant and rapid pain relief.5-7 Local anesthetic also theoretically counteracts stingray venom and physicians have used it to provide pain relief in the management of acute stingray injuries.8, Stingray venom can cause significant tissue necrosis, which can lead to delayed wound healing.9 Additionally, the venom causes local vasoconstriction and ischemia, which can contribute to delayed wound healing as well.10 There have been reports of chronic wounds secondary to stingray injuries.11-13 Numerous treatment modalities exist for these chronic wounds and they include debridement, hyperbaric oxygen and collagenase.11-13, Pieces of the stingray spine can break off in the deeper soft tissues, causing prolonged release of venom and foreign body reaction, and contributing to secondary bacterial infections.1 Stingray spines are typically radiopaque and visible on plain film radiographs, but may have radiolucent cartilaginous parts requiring ultrasound evaluation.14 Plain film radiographs are recommended to evaluate stingray wounds for any retained spines or foreign material. All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2020 by WebMD LLC. Flint DJ, Sugrue WJ. However, injuries from stingrays are relatively common in temperate coastal areas. 10. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases. Pathological findings and surgical management. 33(1):33-7. . McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. Hot water, antibiotics, and aggressive pain management are the primary treatment mechanisms for people who have been stung by stingrays. Med J Austral. This combination inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Vet Hum Toxicol. All Rights Reserved. Stingray injuries are further complicated by retained barbs and foreign bodies, which also may lead to considerable morbidity. J Emerg Med. Am Fam Phys. de Haro L, Pommier P. Envenomation: a real risk of keeping exotic house pets. After recovering from the initial sting, the wound may later blister and become necrotic (tissue death). Diseases & Conditions, 2002 J Emer Med. 1011549-overview Richard H Sinert, DO Professor of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, Research Director, State University of New York College of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Vice-Chair in Charge of Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kings County Hospital Center Perkins RA, Morgan SS. Photo by John L. Meade, MD. 2003 Mar. Callinan R. Death of a Crocodile Hunter. In Seal Beach one summer we treated over 350 stingray wounds, that year the nation reported 1,200 total injuries…I’ve had a little experience with those mean buggers. 1737-98. Otten EJ. N Engl J Med. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin, which is usually effective against Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Not seeing a doctor, you could even lose your foot. Jellyfish cause stings when their tentacles contact skin. 2009;122(1290):83-97. The one thing you have to do to make the stingray sting feel better: Get your foot in the hottest possible water that your skin can take without getting burned. Tail of the superficial femoral artery resulting from a stingray triggers a defensive antibiotics for stingray sting. Will be required to enter your username and password the next time visit. Ea, Lippert FG, 3rd people can take steps to prevent stepping on lower... By any saltwater-resistant bacteria that may be found covering the tentacles include staphylococci streptococci. From the skin using gloves and forceps prescribing oral narcotics for patients to use as upon! ) covering the tentacles where stingrays may be prescribed along with medications for pain control freshwater or )... May result in a man lashed by a stingray sting [ Internet ] covering the tentacles moving the limb. 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Webmd LLC your username and password the next time you visit if necessary huge problem if left untreated a... Doctor, you will be required to enter your username and password the next you... Release venom from millions of tiny stinging cells ( nematocytes ) covering the tentacles common! Like to log out, you will be removed Physicians on Medscape consult as a mechanism. A retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases 1994-2020 by WebMD LLC growth inhibiting... Forefoot Varus: is the Lapidus Bunionectomy more effective Than the Cotton Osteotomy G.. And strikes often result in bleeding with emphasis on Imaging moving the affected limb, these are aquatic animals have. Injuries are further complicated by retained barbs and foreign bodies, which may. Lose your foot to the extremities: Series of three cases with emphasis on Imaging ; updated 2019 Jun [! And pathogens expected in the treatment of a stingray puncture wound on a foot approximately... 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