Carrié & Rousselle, p.657 citing T.D. Constantine I, the first Roman emperor to profess Christianity. [68] In the late spring or early summer of AD 305, Constantius requested leave for his son to help him campaign in Britain. [106], In 310 AD, a dispossessed Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks. [281], Following his death, his body was transferred to Constantinople and buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles,[282] in a porphyry sarcophagus that was described in the 10th century by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in the De Ceremoniis. [296] The Renaissance rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources prompted a re-evaluation of his career. [280] From these and other accounts, some have concluded that Eusebius's Vita was edited to defend Constantine's reputation against what Eusebius saw as a less congenial version of the campaign. [29] The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics from the late third and early fourth centuries, provide valuable information on the politics and ideology of the tetrarchic period and the early life of Constantine. Bleckmann, "Sources for the History of Constantine" (CC), p. 23–25; Cameron, 90–91; Southern, 169. During the Second World War, when in South Africa, Goulimis became interested in botany. [145], Brescia's army was easily dispersed,[146] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona, where a large Maxentian force was camped. [217] The figures of old gods were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism. Acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father’s death in 306 CE, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius, to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 CE. In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave. His mother, Helena, was Greek and of low birth. Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated. [147] Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect,[148] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige. Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort, Helena. At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to end raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire. [96] There was little sympathy for these enemies; as his panegyrist declared, "It is a stupid clemency that spares the conquered foe. [81] Wishing to make it clear that he alone gave Constantine legitimacy, Galerius personally sent Constantine the emperor's traditional purple robes. [245], The Senate as a body remained devoid of any significant power; nevertheless, the senators had been marginalized as potential holders of imperial functions during the 3rd century but could now dispute such positions alongside more upstart bureaucrats. Bowman, p. 70; Potter, 283; Williams, 49, 65. [271] He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan, where Christ was written to have been baptized. It was founded by Carthaginians and was the capital and commercial center of Numidia. [124] Maximinus mobilized against Licinius, and seized Asia Minor. In a letter written to the king of Persia, Shapur, Constantine had asserted his patronage over Persia's Christian subjects and urged Shapur to treat them well. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was professed by Christians. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (modern Great Britain). [198], In the following years, Constantine gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy. Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign. [37] Constantine probably spent little time with his father[38] who was an officer in the Roman army, part of the Emperor Aurelian's imperial bodyguard. The Theodosian Walls consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front. In military matters, the Roman army was reorganized to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. [177], Constantine entered Rome on 29 October 312 AD,[179][180] and staged a grand adventus in the city which was met with jubilation. Lenski, "Introduction" (CC), 5; Storch, 145–55. Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn. The troops loyal to Constantius' memory followed him in acclamation. The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom". [191] Constantine also attempted to remove Maxentius' influence on Rome's urban landscape. Seeck presents Constantine as a sincere war hero whose ambiguities were the product of his own naïve inconsistency. [82] Constantine accepted the decision,[81] knowing that it would remove doubts as to his legitimacy. Constantine is a village in St. Joseph County in the U.S. state of Michigan.The population was 2,095 at the 2000 census.The village is located within Constantine Township.It is on U.S. Highway 131, leading to Kalamazoo to the north and to the Indiana Toll Road six miles to the south. Huns Group of nomadic tribes that pushed through central Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries C.E. [93], Constantine was largely untried and had a hint of illegitimacy about him; he relied on his father's reputation in his early propaganda, which gave as much coverage to his father's deeds as to his. The motif of the Romanesque equestrian, the mounted figure in the posture of a triumphant Roman emperor, became a visual metaphor in statuary in praise of local benefactors. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. [235] More significantly, in 325 he summoned the First Council of Nicaea, most known for its dealing with Arianism and for instituting the Nicene Creed. [250], The third century saw runaway inflation associated with the production of fiat money to pay for public expenses, and Diocletian tried unsuccessfully to re-establish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins. Outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the Battle of Adrianople. Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide. Slightly inland, it is about 80 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of Rhumel river. Constantinople (kŏn'stăn'tĭnō`pəl), former capital of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire, successor state to the Roman Empire (see under Rome), also called Eastern Empire and East Roman Empire. He probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution[91] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor" Galerius. He enforced the council's prohibition against celebrating the Lord's Supper on the day before the Jewish Passover, which marked a definite break of Christianity from the Judaic tradition. Pagans showered him with praise, such as Praxagoras of Athens, and Libanius. [186] In response, the Senate decreed him "title of the first name", which meant that his name would be listed first in all official documents,[187] and they acclaimed him as "the greatest Augustus". Constantine served with distinction under emperors Diocletian and Galeriuscampaignin… [16] The nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography[17] written between AD 335 and circa AD 339[18]—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. definition- king of Persia, united the persian empire (circa 600-529 BC) significance- founder of the Persian empire. Constantine I (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, translit. Being incredibly charming and having a way with words may have played a role in the character becoming the mystical marvel that Constantine is … In its preface, he argued that Zosimus' picture of Constantine offered a more balanced view than that of Eusebius and the Church historians. A battle that took place between the Roman Emperors, Constantine I and Maxentius, on October 28, 312, and is often seen as the beginning of Constantine’s conversion to Christianity. [155] He still controlled Rome's praetorian guards, was well-stocked with African grain, and was surrounded on all sides by the seemingly impregnable Aurelian Walls.
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